THE HUMAN SPRING APPROACH TO
THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME

by Dr James Stoxen DC., FSSEMM (hon) FWSSEM

GLOSSARY
R


radial nerve injury – may be due to physical trauma, infection, or even exposure to toxins. It often causes numbness and tingling or burning pain

radiates – diverge or spread from or as if from a central point.

radiating – diverging or spreading from or as if from a central point.

radiating pain (radiculitis) – is a sign that a nerve or nerve root along the spinal column is under pressure from injury or inflammation. It is a common symptom of many spinal conditions and manifests itself as pain that travels the length of a nerve — for instance, down an entire arm or leg.

radicular pattern – is pain “radiated” along the dermatome of a nerve due to inflammation or other irritation of the nerve root at its connection to the spinal column.

radiculitis (radiating pain) – radiculitis, is pain “radiated” along the dermatome (sensory distribution) of a nerve due to inflammation or other irritation of the nerve root (radiculopathy) at its connection to the spinal column.

radiculopathy – is an abnormality affecting the root of the large spinal nerve at the level of spinal column.

radiograph – an image produced on a sensitive plate or film by X-rays, gamma rays, or similar radiation, and typically used in medical examination.

Raynaud’s phenomenon – a condition in which cold temperatures or strong emotions cause blood vessel spasms.

receptors – a region of tissue, or a molecule in a cell membrane, that responds specifically to a particular neurotransmitter, hormone, antigen, or other substance.

reclined sitting – sitting while leaned back.

reduction mammoplasty – breast reduction and reduction mammoplasty) is the plastic surgery procedure for reducing the size of large breasts.

reflex – an action that is performed as a response to a stimulus and without conscious thought.

reflex sympathetic dystrophy RSD (complex regional pain syndrome CRPS) – a chronic pain condition in which high levels of nerve impulses are sent to an affected site.

repetitive activity – a job is considered to be repetitive when the duration of a task or group of tasks (a cycle) is less than 30 seconds. When cycles are longer than 30 seconds the task is considered repetitive when the worker is performing the same motion for more than 50% of the cycle.

repetitive motion – injury to the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, or sustained or awkward positions”.

repetitive strain injury – a condition in which the prolonged performance of repetitive actions, typically with the hands, causes pain or impairment of function in the tendons and muscles involved.

resection – to cut out.

residual subclavian vein obstruction or early postoperative rethrombosis – narrowed subclavian vein after surgery.

residual subclavian vein stenosis – narrowing of the subclavian vein.

resistance exercise – resistance exercise is any form of exercise that forces your skeletal muscles.

respiratory impairment – a generic term that refers to a number of medical conditions that can affect the respiratory system and may result in limitations such as labored breathing or asthma attacks, fatigue and difficulty with mobility, heightened sensitivity to ordinary substances and chemicals, and compromised immunity to infection.

respiratory system – the set of organs that allows a person to breathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. An example of respiratory system is the human’s nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes and lungs.

resting tone (residual muscle tension or tonus) – tension of a muscle when it is not voluntarily contracting. It helps to maintain posture.

restorative – having the ability to restore health, strength, or a feeling of well-being.

rethrombosis – when a clot reforms after thoracic outlet decompression surgery

righting reflex (labyrinthine righting reflex) – a reflex that corrects the orientation of the body when it is taken out of its normal upright position.

rolfing – an alternative medical treatment marketed by the Rolf Institute of Structural Integration.

Roos classification – a classification of anomalous structures within the thoracic outlet, originally devised by David Roos. This classification grew to include up to 14 different variants, but there is considerable overlap between individual items and other anatomic designations. The system has fallen into disuse because of an unnecessary level of complexity and uncertain relevance to clinical or surgical treatment.

Roos Test (Elevated Arm Stress Test) – a common test included in the examination of the sore shoulder, specifically for the presence of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (TOS).

rotator cuff – a capsule with fused tendons that support the arm at the shoulder joint.

rotator cuff inflammation – a condition in which the rotator cuff tendons are inflamed

rotator cuff surgery or rotator cuff repair – surgery to repair a torn tendon in the shoulder. The procedure can be done with a large (open) incision or with shoulder arthroscopy, which uses smaller incisions

rotator cuff syndrome – a painful strain of the tendons that supports the arm at the shoulder joint.

rotator cuff tear – a tear in one or some of the rotator cuff muscles such as the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.

rugby – a team game played with an oval ball that may be kicked, carried, and passed from hand to hand. Points are scored by grounding the ball behind the opponents’ goal line (thereby scoring a try) or by kicking it between the two posts and over the crossbar of the opponents’ goal.

Meet Dr James Stoxen DC., FSSEMM (hon)
President, Team Doctors® Masters Academy
www.drstoxen.com
Dr Stoxen’s Curriculum Vitae

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